The Mexican Revolution
The failure of the 35-year long regime of president Porfírio Díaz, a series of political crisis between competing factions of the elite and the fraudulent elections of 1910 were among the first causes of the Mexican Revolution. Over the first years of that decade, the Revolution changed from a revolt against the Díaz government to a multi-sided civil war involving the middle class, indigenous peoples, the peasantry, industrial workers and several military cliques. Conservative forces under general Victoriano Huerta sought, starting in 1913, to reimpose the old Porfirian order, but revolts ensued in the northern states under Venustiano Carranza and peasant leader Emiliano Zapata.
While Huerta was forced to resign in July 1914, the proposed Convention of Aguascalientes, an attempt to sort out a new revolutionary order, failed. Former allies now started fighting each other in yet another round of armed struggle. While the Zapatistas formed an insurrectional army in the southern states, Pancho Villa formed a guerrilla force in the north. While Carranza's Constitutionalist Army fought against both rebel armies, the fight would occasionally spill across the Rio Grande, with occasional attacks on American troops and the famous raid by Pancho Villa on the city of Columbus, New Mexico, in March 1916. This attack prompted an American punitive expedition under general John Pershing which, although it failed to completely capture Villa's forces, contributed to the international community recognizing the Carranza administration as the legitimate government of Mexico.
The Constitutionalist Army would decisively defeat the forces of Zapata and Pancho Villa at the Battle of Celaya in April 1915, paving the way for a new constitutional convention. Despite Carranza being confirmed as the new president of Mexico, the 1917 Constitution still contained many left-wing aspects, including anti-clerical elements, worker's rights and the basis for broad land reform in favor of the peasantry.
In the south, Constitutionalist forces under Pablo Gomes attempted to wipe out Zapata's army, but the Zapatista guerrilla tactics prompted the involvement of colonel Jesus Guajardo with the duty to kill Emiliano Zapata. Disagreements between the many Carrancista factions allowed for Zapata to make the daring move of offering Guajardo the chance to change sides. The famous Engaño de Chinameca, in which Guajardo's forces defected to Zapata, taking with them weapons, supplies and men, allowed Zapatismo to remain in fighting form for the rest of the Revolution.
By early 1919, General Alvaro Obregón had decided to use his immense popularity to run in the 1920 presidential elections. Carranza himself announced that we would not participate in these elections, instead endorsing an obscure diplomat, Ignácio Bonillas, planning to use him as his puppet. Near election day, Carranza attempted to arrest Obregon, who fled to the state of Guerrero. General Alfonso De La Huerta announces the Plan of Agua Prieta, a planned insurrection to depose Carranza. The pronunciamento was a success, with over 70% of the Mexican army joining the plan. Carranza refused to surrender and attempted to flee to Veracruz, but was betrayed. He was assassinated on the 21st of May 1920 in the mountains north of Puebla.
Zapatista troops moved to take advantage of the situation, quickly displacing the forces of Pablo Gomes and capturing important cities such as Cuernavaca, Cuautla, Xochimilco and Toluca, reaching Mexico City itself before Obregón's forces. Although the forces of both Obregon and De La Huerta are superior to Zapata's, these leaders accept forming a government to rule the country and avoid a new bloody campaign, putting an end to the armed phase of the Revolution. Obregon became the new president of Mexico, while Zapata was confirmed as minister of finance in order to carry out his planned land reform project. Pancho Villa was offered the post of ambassador in the newly-formed Commune of France, coming into contact with socialist leaders such as Raymond Molinier, Pierre Frank and Alfred Rosmer.
Under Obregon, major reconstructions plans were initiated, intending to rebuild the damaged infrastructure. Zapata's land reform redistributed nearly 45 million acres of arable land to the peasantry, creating the ejido system of communal ownership of land. Obregon's work was continued by the next presidents De La Huerta (1923) and Jesus Guajardo (1928), with Zapata finally being elected president of Mexico in the 1932 elections.
The Zapata government is marked by an even greater investment in agriculture, allowing the ejidos to become productive enough to grow cash crops such as coating and henequen. Despite not being on the best terms with Villa, Zapata made him his foreign minister, which helped create stronger diplomatic bonds with the Commune of France. Despite the great progress so far, the presidential elections remain a mystery. Pancho Villa, supported by both Zapata and De La Huerta, is expected to be elected the new president, while totalitarian socialist Plutarco Calles may cause some surprises. Also, the USA had become more unstable in the last years, and a civil war in the neighboring country looms in the horizon. The question of the 27th article of the constitution still needs an answer in the matter of taking over the mineral and oil resources of the nation out of foreign hands
President: Emiliano Zapata
Acting President: Vicente Lombardo Toledano
Secretary of Foreign Affairs: Eduardo Hay
Secretary of Economy: Enrique Estrada Reynoso
Secretary of Public Safety: Doroteo Arango Arambula
Head of the Military Intelligence: Plutarco Elias Calles
Secretary of National Defense: Augustin Mendoza Cais
Commander-in-Chief of the National Defense Army: Plutarco Elias Calles
Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Navy: Heriberto Jara Corona
Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Air Force: Agustin Olachea Aviles
Political Parties (as of 1936)
Party President: Emiliano Zapata Salazar
Party President: Francisco Villa
Party President: Plutarco Elias Calles
The Totalistas party is infamously known for its violent attitude towards political rivals and militaristic stand, aiming for a re-armed mexican state and the dissolution of ejidos.
Created by Plutarco Elias Calles who is often called "El gran jefe" (the great boss) for his almost dictatorial posture in his own party, the Totalistas are thought to install a tyrannic form of goverment in case of winning the next elections.
PNR (Partido Nacional Revolucionario)
Party President: Lázaro Cárdenas del Río
After the tremendous fails in the 1923 and 1928 elections, the once promising bloc formed after the revolution is now in a dire situation, slowly losing support from the mexican people, the social democrats won´t have their own party for long if the mexican syndicalist movements keep growing bigger and bigger.
Perhaps with Cárdenas promising economical reforms mexicans may turn around and see if some new liberalism is what Mexico needs.
La Casa de Iturbide
Royal House Leader: María Josefa Sofia de Iturbide
The Mexican Royal House is almost unknown among the mexican people, people who have only read about "Mexican Kings" in books, if they have ever read one, the royal house of Iturbide is in a dire situation at best, wereas they have poor to no reclamation of the Mexican throne.
The last member of this strange monarchic branch, María Josefa Sofia de Iturbide, currently resides in austria where she has been given the status of "political refugee"
UNS (Union Nacional Sinarquista)
Party President: Salvador Abascal Infante
Being a minor player in politics, the populist UNS (or National Synarchist Union) is usually overlooked, having the great majority of its members located in the state of baja california makes this party almost irrelevant yet quite dangerous if the right situation strikes Mexico...
Ejercito de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (army)
Recently established in 1913, the Mexican army is still young and pretty weak with an estimate of 32 thousand land actives deployed throughout the country, cavalry is still quite common and the army has yet to modernize.
The current service rifle is Mondragon modelo 1908
Still small, the Mexican navy is intended for defensive purposes only, even though military experts agree that Mexico has a huge potential in the naval scope.
Fuerza Aerea Mexicana (air force)
The Mexican Air Force is largely outdated with the vast majority of it´s planes bought or directly borrowed from France or the USA, the only active squadron currently is the "Escuadron Aereo de Defensa 201".