With an ongoing Spanish rework this page contains information relating to both the current Spanish setup and in-progress rework, with the ultimate goal of course being to phase out all older information once the changes to Spain are introduced.
Spain (Spanish: España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España) is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, as well as several territories in Africa. The Spanish mainland is bordered to the South and East by the Mediterranean Sea; to the North and Northeast by the Commune of France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the West and Northwest by Portugal, and the Atlantic Ocean. Along with the Commune of France, Spain is one of the only two countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Extending to 1,214 km (754 mi), the Portuguese-Spanish border is the longest uninterrupted border in Europe.
Spanish territory includes two archipelagos: The Balearic Isles in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes the colonies of Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara, and Spanish Morocco. Through these territories Spain also shares land borders with the German Empire, and the French Fourth Republic.
The Rif War (1920-1923)
The Rif War was a conflict fought between the Kingdom of Spain and the Republic of the Rif - a Berber Republic established by Abed el-Krim in the Spanish Moroccan Protectorate. An initial Spanish expedition led by High Commissioner for Morocco Dámaso Berenguer Fusté, was to end in disaster with el-Krim's forces inflicting a series of crushing military defeats on the numerically and technologically superior Spanish Force. Over 3 years of continuous military defeats were to make the Rif War nothing short of a national embarrassment, an embarrassment which would not only bring down the sitting government, but the entire Spanish democratic process.
Enter Rivera (1923)
Between 1874 and 1923, the Spanish political scene was dominated by a system known as Turnismo, by committing electoral fraud the Liberal and Conservative Parties would effectively share power, bowing out in favour of the other after a predetermined length of time - or if public opinion took a turn for the worst. On paper Spain was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, in practice things were not so simple. True opposition mostly came from the UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores); Spain's largest Trade Union, as well as from anarchist terrorism, with political assassinations commonplace in 20th century Spain. One of the more memorable acts of political violence was the assassination of Prime Minister Eduardo Dato e Iradier. Whilst being driven from the Parliament building at the height of the Rif War, Dato was shot dead by 3 Catalan anarchists - Lluís Nicolau, Pere Mateu, and Ramon Casanelles - travelling by motorcycle, in one of the world's first modern 'Drive-by shootings''.
The events following Dato's assassination led to the establishment of a new Liberal Government headed by former Prime Minister Manuel García-Prieto. The new government quickly alienated military circles by refusing to commit further resources and spending to the Rif War in the fact of constant defeats at the hands of el-Krim's forces. This alienation and discontent was to culminate in a coup d'état led by General Miguel Primo de Rivera, taking full advantage of military opposition to García-Prieto's administration.
On 13th September 1923 Rivera marched on Madrid, swaying the local garrison to his cause, quickly taking control of the city. A manifesto was quickly issued to the people of Spain; proclaiming that a '...''brief parenthesis'' had to be opened in the constitution life of the Kingdom "... so as to restore order and wash away the old system of Turnismo".' Alfonso XIII resentful of attacks on his person from the Liberal Party and other Republicans in the Cortes was quick to name Rivera as Prime Minister, declaring his support for a new Spanish regime - the King and his council were in fact well aware of Rivera's plans in advance of his coup attempt, simply allowing the General to proceed with his rising. Martial law was immediately invoked, the Cortes disbanded, and a Supreme Directory headed by Rivera established to govern the country. The Spanish bureaucracy was systemically purged, with hostile civil servants replaced with loyal officers and sympathetic businessmen. Despite personally showing no interest in continuing the Rif War, the General quickly announced further mobilisation of reserve forces, and authorised the use of chemical weaponry in order to bring an end to the conflict, and to appease the increasingly influential Africanist officers.
The End of the War (1925-1926)
Despite reinforcing the Army of Africa, Rivera like his predecessors was unable bring a swift end to the Rif War; with el-Krim's guerrillas seemingly unable to be pinned down by the slowly advancing Spanish Forces. Respite was to finally arrive in the form of a German intervention beginning April 1925. On 12th April approximately 8,000 Rifians launched a major raid on a German outpost North of the border, with the unprepared German garrison suffering heavy casualties in the face of the Rifian surprise attack. Accordingly the German Empire intervened on the Spanish side of the conflict, deploying over 100,000 men from both German Morocco and Continental Germany, leaving the Rifians hopelessly outnumbered. After one last year of fighting the Rifian forces were finally routed on 8th May 1925 by a combined Spanish-German force under the command of General José Sanjurjo Sacanell.
Fall of the British Empire (1925)
On 9th June 1925 Spanish forces under the direct command of the Prime Minister crossed the border into the British held territory of Gibraltar. Despite having lost control of Gibraltar over 200 years ago, reconquest of 'The Rock' remained on the Spanish agenda ever since, a goal previously seen unattainable in the face of the ever growing British Empire. The declaration of the 'Socialist Union of Britain' on 4th June was to mark an effective end of British power - leaving the Empire's colonial holdings alone and unprotected. The march on Gibraltar was not a pre-planned endeavor, but instead an act of political opportunism by Rivera in an attempt to further secure his regime by finally restoring Spanish sovereignty to the Rock of Gibraltar.
The 'Comandancia Militar de Andalucía' was to meet no military resistance from the unprepared, underarmed, and undermanned British garrison stationed at Gibraltar.. The Spanish occupation was to also meet no real diplomatic resistance, with the only dissent coming from the Commonwealth Realms.. Despite pre-empting a planned German seizure of the Rock, the German Empire was quick to congratulate the Spanish government on their achievement. With the Spanish economy closely tied to the Berlin stock exchange and the two countries fighting together in Morocco; Spain was a recognised strategic partner of the German Empire and one unlikely to drift towards the enemies of the Empire for both ideological and geopolitical reasons, the Spanish seizure of Gibraltar effectively securing German domination of the Mediterranean Sea. The lack of any British resistance was to trigger a series of similar 'land grabs' over territories formerly ruled from London, with much of the British Empire falling into the hands of her old German rival.
Fall of General Rivera (1930)
On 30th January 1930, Miguel Primo de Rivera resigned as Prime Minister. On the 28th the General confided in his General Staff demanding to know if he could still rely on their support, met with lukewarm assurances of support at best, and outright refusals at worst; Rivera made the decision to resign having already lost the support of King Alfonso. Rivera's downfall was largely the result of an unprecedented economic crisis partially fueled by Rivera's own economic policies; the General's regime had been characterised by large-scale public works programmes, creating one of Europe's most modern automobile networks and reaching a record low level of unemployment. Rivera's policy of deficit spending was to backfire when in late 1929 Spain fell into recession, leading to a reversal of policy and the enforcement of economic austerity and a spike in unemployment. As protests across the country intensified the King was quick to distance himself from the General in order to try and distance the monarchy from the General's dictatorship. Following Rivera's resignation former High Commissioner of Spanish Morocco Dámaso Berenguer Fusté was appointed Prime Minister by the King, hoping that Berenguer would be able to restore a degree of normality to Spain by repealing certain policies enforced by the Rivera regime - whilst simultaneously preserving the dictatorship. Don Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquis of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, Knight of Calatrava died on 16th March 1930, aged 60.
Fall of the Kingdom (1930-1931)
On 14th February 1931 Dámaso Berenguer Fusté tendered his own resignation as Prime Minister. Rather than stabilising Spain Berenguer's appointment only further turned public opinion further against the dictatorship, with Berenguer's premiership and 'Dictablanda' (Soft Dictatorship) seen as nothing more than a captain desperately trying to preserve a sinking ship. The Pact of San Sebastián - a meeting of practically all republican and opposition movements in Spain - of 17th August 1931 is generally seen as the killing blow delivered against the Monarchy and Berenguer's rule. Established at San Sebastián was a 'Revolutionary Committee', a blueprint for a future provisional government in the event that the Monarchy was toppled.
In Close contact with sympathetic generals the committee prepared for a coup d'état set for 15th December. The coup however collapsed before it could even begin, with Captain Fermín Galán Rodríguez of the Jaca garrison rising 3 days early on the 12th December, leading to a quick and effective suppression of the coup and the arrest of multiple leading opposition figures. Despite the failure of the rising the plot itself succeed in sending a clear message of opposition to the government. With Berenguer's resignation, Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas was appointed Prime Minister by the King.
The Admiral's decision to hold municipal elections to appease the opposition would prove to be the Coup de grâce delivered against the Kingdom. The Spanish Municipal Elections of 12th April 1931 led to republican victories across the country, highlighted by the republican opposition achieving overall majorities in 41 regional capitals - with monarchist majorities only occurring in 9 capitals. As election results began to pour in republican protesters quickly took to the streets, occupying cities across the country and declaring an end to the monarchy. Facing the very real possibility of revolution Alfonso XIII confided in Inspector General of the Guardia Civil José Sanjurjo Sacanell, demanding to know if the Civil Guard could be relied on to defend the monarchy against a popular rising; Sanjurjo refused to give any such assurance. 2 days later on the 14th, Alfonso XIII fled the country and Admiral Bautista tendered his resignation as Prime Minister, the Revolutionary Committee of San Sebastián quickly installed itself as a provisional government; immediately declaring the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a Second Spanish Republic.
Dawn of the Republic (1931-1932)
Within a month of the establishment of the Republic, War Minister Manuel Azaña Díaz announced a series of military reforms to be undertaken by the Republic with immediate effect. In 1931 the Spanish Army consisted of 15 divisions that could be effectively managed by 80 generals, the Spanish officer corps was however notoriously bloated; made up of 800 generals, and 21,000 officers to 118,000 men. The Azaña reforms aimed to increase parliamentary oversight over the military, curb its historical independence, and to drastically reduce the size of the officer corps. These reforms were overwhelmingly negatively received by the Spanish officer corps, a particularly impassioned response from General Sanjurjo was to see his reassignment from Inspector General of the Guardia Civil to Captain General of Sevilla, other generals including Emilio Barrera Luyando and Miguel García de la Herrán were quick to resign in protest.
On 12th May 1931 the first elections of the Spanish Republic were held, the results were a landslide victory for a coalition between the Republican Left and Marxist Left alliances. The resulting coalition government was to be headed by Azaña, with acting Prime Minister Niceto Alcalá-Zamora elected president of the Republic.
Twilight of the Republic (1932)
From the moment the Azaña reforms were introduced rumours of an imminent coup d'état orchestrated by reactionary elements of the military became increasingly common and a cause for a concern. In the end these were to prove to be more than just rumours, within days of Azaña's election a coalition of dissatisfied members of the Rivera administration and generals hostile to the governing socialist coalition had been established by General Sanjurjo and the young Airforce Major Juan Antonio Ansaldo Vejarano. The conspirators quickly bolstered their numbers, justifying the conspiracy as an attempt to prevent Spain drifting into the French sphere of influence and to align Spain with the German Empire once more. Despite a sizable number of those involved in the conspiracy being self-confessed republicans (including serving Chief of Staff Manuel Goded Llopis), it was eventually agreed that the monarchy would be restored in some form, this decision was to prove decisive, bringing the exiled monarchist bussinessman Juan Alberto March Ordinas into the conspiracy. Although no definitive proof exists it is generally agreed that the German Empire was complicit in General Sanjurjo's rising to some degree, be it through allowing funds from Ordinas to enter Spain, or rumours that the conspirators received a shipment of weaponry shipped directly from Germany. The primary German motivation to support the rising was a desire to place a more friendly regime in control of the strait of Gibraltar, fearing that the Azaña government may be susceptible to influence from the Commune of France. Overall command of the rising against the Republic was handed to General Barrera, with Goded commanding the Madrid rising, and Sanjurjo serving as both figurehead of the entire rising and the commander for the Sevilla rising.
The moment of rebellion was set at 4 AM, August 10, 1932. As the clock struck General Barrera and a loyal Terico of the Gurdia Civil quickly seized control of the Palacio de Comunicaciones, overpowering the small loyalist garrision - with the Civil Guard units meant to respond to the incident having already signed up to the conspiracy. Almost simultaneously Goded and 9 rebel regiments in Madrid began to move on key government offices, including both the Ministery of War and the two chambers of the Cortes Generales.
By 5 AM Azaña was aware of an ongoing attempt to oust his government - and to possibly topple the Republic. At 9 AM a second series of revolts occurred throughout Andalusia, with General Sanjurjo quickly seizing the state capital of Sevilla, while divisions under the commands of Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Enrique Varela also mobilised against the Republic. The final coup de grâce was delivered by the Army of Africa, the largely reactionary 'Africanist' officer corps quickly declared for the the rising that seemed destined to succeed, with High Commissioner Luciano López Ferrer quickly declaring for the rising in response. By midday the Azaña cabinet had fled the capital, the Republic had fallen.
Soon a new cabinet was established, dominated by the military elite involved in the conspiracy. The two key players Sanjurjo and Barrera establishing themselves as Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior respectively. Notably absent from the new regime was the former Director of the General Military Academy of Zaragoza; Francisco Franco Bahamonde, left out in the cold after having failed to rise up in revolt with the other generals despite initially supporting the conspiracy. Despite the monarchist tendencies of both Sanjurjo and Barrera, in a surprising move the exiled Alfonso XIII was not invited back to Spain, nor offered his throne. Even the most dedicated monarchists recognised that Alfonso XIII was a spent figure, the return of the already once deposed King would only threaten the stability of the new regime, and likely discredit the entire institution of the monarchy. In the end it was agreed that General Sanjurjo would declare himself both Prime Minister and Regent, temporarily leaving the throne vacant and granting himself the authority to appoint the next King of Spain, bypassing Salic Law if need be. Some historians suggest that the decision to establish a regency was a result of a General Berenguer's appointment as Prime Minister in 1930, with Sanjurjo confiding in close associates that he was far more qualified for the post than the disgraced former High Commissioner. Despite this, on the 11th August 1932 the Kingdom of Spain was restored once more, and the Second Spanish Republic fell just as the First did.
|Conscription Law: Limited Conscription|
|Economic Law: Civilian Economy|
|Trade Law: Export Focus|
|Head of Government: Rework: José Sanjurjo Sacanell
Current: José María Gil-Robles
|Foreign Minister: Rework: Fernando Suárez de Tangil
Current: Ramiro de Maeztu
|Economy Minister: Rework: José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque
Current: Juan March Ordinas
|Security Minister: Rework:Emilio Barrera Luyando
Current: Miguel Ponte y Manso de Zúñiga
|Intelligence Minister: Rework: Miguel García de la Herrán
Current: José Ungría Jiménez
The Spanish Armed Forces currently consist of 13,000 active personnel spread across: 2 Regional HQ Divisions, 17 Infantry Divisions, 1 Mountain Division, 2 Cavalry Divisions, 2 Regional Garrisons, and 2 Colonial Light Infantry Divisions. General Manuel Goded Llopis is the current Chief of the General Staff with José Enrique Varela serving as his loyal deputy. While relatively modern by international standards, the Spanish armed forces await much needed reform, with the most modern equipment and units currently serving as part of the Army of Africa.
The Spanish Navy is comprise of 2 España Class Battleships, 2 Canarias Class Heavy Cruisers, 6 Light Cruisers of varying ages, 17 Destroyers, and 12 Submarines. Despite being fairly large in size the Spanish fleet is woefully outdated with the 2 German designed Canarias Class Heavy Cruisers far outperforming the dated España Class Battleships. Admiral Antonio Magaz y Pers is the current Minister of the Navy.
The Spanish Airforce is comprised of 214 aircraft spread between: 2 Fight Wings, 1 Interceptor Wing, a Tactical Bombing Wing, and a dedicated Naval Bomber Wing. Largely neglected by the General Staff the Spanish Airforce is generally seen as nothing more than an accessory to the equally underfunded Navy. Procurement of new aircraft and general aerial affairs are handled by Major Juan Antonio Ansaldo Vejarano, a close ally of General Sanjurjo.
The Kingdom of Spain,
- Maintains less than cordial relations with the Commune of France, and the Socialist Republic of Italy