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The 1919 Ceasefire of Copenhagen was the treaty that de-facto ended the Weltkrieg, although it did not formally conclude until the Peace with Honour in 1921. It provided for the return of occupied Entente and Central Powers territory with the exception of Qingdao, the repatriation of prisoners, and Entente diplomatic recognition of the Central Powers' gains from its former members.

History

After the fall of France, Britain had clung to the belief that a decisive naval victory could break Germany and reverse the tide of the war. After the Second Battle of Jutland ended in a miserable stalemate, popular will to continue the war vanished. Germany's offer of a white peace was grimly accepted, and diplomatic feelers were put out to find a willing neutral territory to sign a ceasefire in. Denmark was deemed the most convenient, and in December the representatives of the two alliances arrived by boat in Copenhagen and met in Rosenborg Castle. During the first round of negotiations, Japan claimed their "13 Demands" with China superseded Germany's lease of territory on the Shandong Peninsula and refused to evacuate it. When the British failed to support their claim, the delegation walked out. Nonetheless, the ceasefire was signed by the remaining two powers on the morning of Christmas Eve, bringing an end to half a decade of bloodshed.

Text

Convention signed at Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Entered into force December 24th, 1919, in perpetuity

ARTICLE ONE: Hostilities on land, sea, and air will cease within six hours of signature.

ARTICLE TWO: The Central Powers will evacuate all occupied colonial and national territory of the Allied Powers within 31 days, following which the Allied Powers will evacuate all occupied colonial and national territory of the Central Powers within 31 days. Territory is defined as the legally established borders on July 27th, 1914, except where superseded by later treaties as per Article Nine.

ARTICLE THREE: The repatriation of the POWs and detainees of both parties will begin immediately after the evacuations in Article Two are complete, along with the return of all seized naval vessels.

ARTICLE FOUR: There shall be no removal or destruction of civilian goods or inhabitants in evacuated territories and all military matériel and premises are to be left intact.

ARTICLE FIVE: All means of communication (roads, railways, canals, bridges, telegraphs, telephones) are to be left intact, as well as everything needed for agriculture and industry.

ARTICLE SIX: All captured matériel shall remain in its controllers hands.

ARTICLE SEVEN: All minefields on land and sea are to be identified as soon as possible after signature.

ARTICLE EIGHT: There shall be free access to all waters for all unarmed vessels.

ARTICLE NINE: The Allied Powers will respect the treaties between their former members and the Central Powers.

Signatories

The Central Powers;

  • The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
  • The German Empire
  • The Sublime Ottoman State
  • The Tsardom of Bulgaria
  • The Kingdom of Lithuania
  • The Kingdom of White Ruthenia
  • The Kingdom of Ukraine
  • The United Baltic Duchy
  • The Kingdom of Finland
  • The Kingdom of Siam

The Allied Powers,

  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
  • The Portuguese Republic